Stigma and discrimination against children affected by HIV and AIDS is caused by lack of understanding on HIV, myths about HIV and association of HIV with "social evils". The booklet “Facts about children and HIV and AIDS” is a resource for education managers, teachers, parents and communities. This booklet aims to provide information about children and HIV and AIDS, with the objective to remove the myths about HIV and AIDS and children affected by AIDS, and reduce stigma and discrimination against these children. The booklet was developed based on the booklet “10 Facts on Children and HIV/ AIDS” produced in Thailand. It was adapted with new content added to ensure relevance with Viet Nam. The booklet includes some pictures from children of Ha Noi and children living with HIV at the No2 Centre for Social Protection.
The booklet titled “Facts about Children and HIV/AIDS” was published by the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) with support from the UN in Viet Nam in August 2010. This booklet aims to provide information about children and HIV and AIDS, with the objective to remove the myths about HIV and AIDS and children affected by AIDS, and reduce stigma and discrimination against these children. You can download the booklet here.
The booklet itself is not enough to remove the myths about HIV and AIDS and children affected by AIDS, and reduce stigma and discrimination against these children. Therefore, a Facilitator’s Guide has been developed as an accompanying resource of the booklet to assist the facilitators to conduct interactive and creative communication sessions and realize optimal impact of the booklet. The Facilitator’s Guide is for anyone who conducts parental, students or community communication session on HIV stigma and discrimination. Those include education managers, teachers and principals, peer educators, and community volunteers, local authorities, NGOs staffs, religious institutions, children and family affected by HIV and AIDS.
The Facilitator’s Guide outlines suggested activities and approaches to promote interpersonal communication to engage community, parents and teachers, which is the key to change behaviours and attitude toward these children, and achieve the overall objective of stigma reduction.
Asia has seen a major increase in the number of women living with HIV over the past decade, with women making up 35 per cent of new infections, an increase of 4 per cent since 2000. Although some women acquired HIV through injecting drug use and others while selling sex, the majority were exposed while having sex with a husband or partner who had contracted HIV through injecting drug use, through unprotected sex with a sex worker or through unprotected sex with a male partner. This is known as HIV transmission in intimate partner relationships, or "IPT".
In 2009, it was estimated that 243,000 people in Viet Nam were living with HIV, with prevalence among adults (ages 15 to 49) at 0.43 per cent of the population. HIV infection is still heavily concentrated among men who use drugs or engage in other high-risk behaviours. In 2009, the number of male adults living with HIV was three times higher than the number of female adults living with HIV, and men still make up the majority of new infections. However, it is estimated that the male-female ratio will gradually decrease, reaching 2.6 by 2012, reflecting the risk of transmission from HIV positive injecting drug users (IDUs) and clients of sex workers to their spouses or regular sexual partners.
Viet Nam’s HIV epidemic remains in a concentrated phase, with the majority of reported HIV cases relating directly or indirectly to injecting drug use, buying and selling sex and/or male-to-male sex. Prevalence across the adult population (aged 15-49) was estimated to be 0.44 per cent in 2009. It is estimated there are 254,000 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2010 and will be up to 280,000 by 2012.
This report was written by Javier Martinez of HLSP Institute, London (see www.hlsp.org). It was commissioned and financed by the Viet Nam Country Office of the World Health Organisation on behalf of the United Nations Country Team in Viet Nam.