The amendment of the 1992 Constitution offers Viet Nam an opportunity to strengthen the rule of law, promote human rights and enhance equality as well as socio-economic and political stability. While the current draft includes a number of significant and positive changes, UNICEF believes the current draft can be made more responsive to the needs of a third of the country's population – its children.
UNICEF's mission is to advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and create opportunities to allow children to reach their full potential. UNICEF's work is guided by the provisions and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). UNICEF has extensive experience, globally and regionally, supporting countries to reflect the rights of children within their constitutions.
This Profile was prepared to present key findings from the Primary Classroom Language Mapping in Lao Cai province, conducted by UNICEF in partnership with the Ministry of Education and Training, Lao Cai Department of Education and Planning, and Summer Institute of Linguistics International. The mapping was to collect information on primary school students' strongest language and academic performance, and the teacher's ethnicity and second language abilities. It helped to identify monolingual school sites, where mother tongue based bilingual education (MTBBE) can be applied; the number of teachers who can potentially be the MTBBE teachers; and where students are performing well and where students are performing weakly. The instrument has proven effective and other provinces plan to apply it in future.
This Toolkit was produced over almost a three year period (2010-2012) under the Project on Capacity Building for Social Audits of the Socio-economic Development Plans between UNICEF and the Ministry of Planning and Investment in Viet Nam. The process of developing this Toolkit benefited from direct and indirect support
from many individuals.
UNICEF and the Ministry of Planning and Investment would like to thank the various consultants and staff of the Oversees Development Institute (ODI) for developing this Toolkit. In addition, this Toolkit also went through extensive consultation and review from a wide range of technical staff and advisors from UNICEF and the Ministry of Planning and Investment.
Specifically, special thanks are due to the following individuals for their contributions and inputs to the development of this Toolkit: Overseas Development Institute: Helen Banos-Smith, Bernard Gauthier, Katie Heller, Louise Mailloux, Sue Newport, Lance Roberson, Gopakumar Thampi, Carol Watson, Caroline Harper, Nicola Jones, Paola Pereznieto, Evie Browne, Sylvia Nwamaraihe, Thomas Trafalgar Aston.
Ministry of Planning and Investment: Nguyen Quang Thang, Nguyen Tuong Son, Ho Minh Chien, Le Quang Hung and Dang Van Nghi. UNICEF: Paul Quarles Van Ufford, Samman J. Thapa, Vu Manh Hong, Ewout Erik Stoefs, Pham Thi Lan, Nguyen Thi Thanh An, Nguyen Ngoc Trieu.
This Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) was undertaken in 2011-2012 under the framework of the Country Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Viet Nam and UNICEF. This publication exemplifies the strong partnership between the Ministry of Planning and Investment, Dien Bien Province and UNICEF Viet Nam.
The Survey was completed by a research team consisting of Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Dung (Central Institute for Economic Management), Ms. Tran Nhu Trang (Center for Rural Progress) and Ms. Hoang Thi Thuy Nguyet (Academy of Finance) with technical guidance and support from Prof. Bernard Gauthier (University of Montreal).
The Survey Report received valuable inputs and comments from experts of local departments and agencies in Dien Bien (Department of Planning and Investment, Department of Education and Training, Department of Finance, Provincial Statistics Office, Committee for Ethnic Minorities, agencies in Muong Cha and Dien Bien Dong districts) and ministries and committees at central level (Ministry of Planning and Investment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education and Training, Committee for Ethnic Minorities).
The Ministry of Planning and Investment and UNICEF Viet Nam would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed to this publication.
Increasing efficiency and effectiveness of Cash Transfer Schemes for improving school
Viet Nam has made overall progress in basic education. Net enrolment rates for primary and second level are 95.5 per cent and 86.2 per cent, respectively (2009 Census). Between 1992 and 2008, primary level completion rates rose from 45.0 per cent to 89.8 per cent.
Despite major achievements in the education sector in Viet Nam, however disparities still remain and education attainment is much lower among several groups, particularly among ethnic minority groups. For ethnic minority children, low enrolment and completion and high drop-out and repetition rates remain a challenge. According to the Government’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, 2011), the primary school completion rate among ethnic minority children is significantly lower than that of Kinh and Hoa children: 79.8 per cent and 103.1 per cent, respectively. There is also inequality between different ethnic minority groups. Figure 1 shows that the primary school net attendance rate among the Mong is as low as 69.6 per cent, while the rate among the Tay is the highest of all, 93.5 per cent, followed by Kinh of 92.6 per cent (Census, 2009).
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